How to Improve Chocolate Processing
The transformation from metastable crystal forms to stable crystal forms is inevitable, it's just a matter of time. Therefore, no piece of chocolate can escape frosting.
Scientists have been working hard to change the fate of chocolate. Ribeiro's team at Columbia University found that the addition of hard fats can significantly accelerate the solidification of cocoa butter. One of the ingredients, FHCrO, can effectively inhibit the transformation from V-type to VI-type, delaying the frosting of chocolate. As the concentration of high melting point TAGs increases in the liquid fat phase, it quickly undergoes supercooling, producing a larger nucleation driving force, which is conducive to the rapid formation of a large number of crystal nuclei, greatly shortening the crystal induction period and inducing co-crystallization. In general, the longer the chain length and the higher the melting point of TAG components as stabilizers for specific crystal forms, the more effective they are. Therefore, FHCrO's effect on stabilizing V-type can be directly attributed to its chemical composition: high melting point (72 ℃) and a carbon atom number between 56 and 68.
(CB: Cocoa butter; Solid fat content (SFC) refers to the content of solid fats in all fats at a certain temperature, which is a parameter that affects crystal kinetic; from the comparison of several curves in the figure, it can be seen that adding a certain amount of FHCrO in cocoa butter can significantly accelerate the crystallization process)
Recently, Alejandro G. Marangoni's team at Guelph University discovered two special phospholipid molecules - saturated phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine - that can help chocolate form a special liquid crystal structure. It was found that by adding these two phospholipids to molten chocolate and rapidly cooling it to 20℃, a perfect crystal can be formed without the need for stirring and complex tempering processes, with optimal microstructure and ideal surface gloss and strength. This discovery enables small-scale manufacturers to carry out chocolate industrial production, greatly reducing industrial costs and producing chocolates with excellent quality, which could change the entire chocolate manufacturing industry.
In addition, emulsifiers also have unique effects. Common emulsifiers include soy lecithin, Tween 60, polyglycerol esters of fatty acids, and sucrose fatty acid esters. In addition to being used for chocolate flavoring, it can also reduce viscosity, increase the flowability between chocolate particles, improve fat dispersion, prevent frosting, improve thermal stability, and product surface smoothness. Many studies have shown that emulsifiers can control the shape, size, and growth rate of cocoa butter crystals, transforming and maintaining them in the ideal V-type.
Notes on Storing Chocolate
Although not everyone is good at scientific research, as a qualified foodie, it is basic to know how to protect the deliciousness of the food! The chocolate we usually eat is refined and contains more soft fats such as milk and cream, which makes the texture softer, reduces the corresponding melting point, and is more prone to frosting, such as milk chocolate and nut-filled chocolate, which should be stored at around 13~18 ℃; untempered chocolate is more fragile, such as raw chocolate and truffles, which should be kept in the refrigerator at low temperatures. In addition, the environmental temperature for storing chocolate should be stable and avoid light.
Although chocolate is small, there is a lot of knowledge behind it. After listening to the author's explanation, do you feel that chocolate, which is draped in romantic clothing, is so full of connotation? Why not try to experience the making of silky chocolate with your own hands and thoughts now?